CNA Basics - 1

CNA is the acronym for Certified Nursing Assistant. As a nursing assistant, you might be asked to perform various clinical duties among other activities. You should know various aspects about the job description before obtaining a license for this occupation. It is important to read carefully the job description to see if you have time for this position. You also have to have excellent communication skills as well as physical strength and agility to carry out tasks without hurting yourself or your patients.

CNA Basics - 2

You have a lot of responsibilities on your hands. Your role is not limited to just physical care or monitoring. You also provide individualized treatments, support health education and teach patients about the importance of good nutrition, exercise and sleep. CNA basics are very important in helping you achieve this.



Knock on door, walk in:

Introduce Self: Hello Ma’am/Sir, my NAME is “” I will be your CNA today.

  1.  I am here to do “SKILL NAME“, Do you have any questions or
  2. May I see ID Bracelet? Thank you, I will be right with you.
  3. Pull Privacy Curtain – WASH HANDS (If Skill #2 or #3 – VERBALLY.
    SAY I will wash my hands.
  4. Gather Linens and Equipment and raise bed or if in Chair, scoot back sit-up straight and perform skill.


If GLOVES were worn, CHANGE GLOVES, tidy bed
and reset.

  1. SAY: Are you Comfortable?
  2. Would you like a book to read or TV turned on?
  3. Here’s your call light, if you need something, give me a call.
  4. LOWER the BED or if in a chair, scoot back sit-up straight and uncross your legs.
  5. Would you like your PRIVACY CURTAIN left open or close?

LAST: Wash Hands / Record / I’m Done

During the test, pulling the privacy curtain is not specifically required for the below 5 skills only, it is optional for these skills only: ALL other skills not listed, are mandatory to pull the privacy Curtain.

  • Ambulation – Scoot Back Sit up straight
  • Feeding – Scoot Back Sit up straight
  • Hand and Nail Care – Scoot Back Sit up straight
  • Wheel Chair Transfer – Scoot Back Sit up straight
  • Foot Care – Support Foot -Scoot Back Sit up straight
NEW: YOU MUST Place the Call Light in the patients HAND prior to leaving, not just on the bed.

Indirect Care Skills – Infection Control/Bed Safety/Communication is evaluated on EVERY skill:

  • Does the CNA: Greet resident. address by name. and introduce self? Opening Procedure
  • Does the CNA: Provide explanations to resident about care before beginning and during care?
  • Does the CNA: Ask resident about preferences during care?
  • Does the CNA: Use Standard Precautions and infection control measures when
  • Does the CNA: Promote residents rights during care? 
  • Does the CNA: Promote residents safety during care? 

hand washing and gloves


  • Do NOT forget to WASH the TOPS of your hands as you do between the fingers.
  • Use plenty of soap. 
  • Do not touch any part of the sink with your hands or scrubs. 
  • Do NOT PULL the paper towels out and lay on the sink. ONE Paper Towel at a time only.
  • Must SCRUB with friction for 20 Seconds.
  • Use paper towel to turn water on and off.
  • Finally use paper towel to shut off the faucet, and then discard the towel.

Equipment needed:

  • Water
  • Soap
  • 6 paper towels

CNA Glove List Clinical Skills These are the only skills you are allowed to wear GLOVES.

Skill – Measure Urine Output (2 Sets Gloves)
Skill – Cather Cleaning (2 Sets Gloves)
Skill – Perinea Care (2 Sets Gloves)
Skill – Foot Care (3 Sets Gloves Optional)
Skill – Brushing Teeth (2 Sets Gloves)
Skill – Denture & Oral Care (3 Sets Gloves)
Skill – Bed Pan Full Skill (3 Sets Gloves)

About Gloves, In real world practice you wear gloves 99% of of the time. NOT for the State CNA Exam. If you place gloves on and they are NOT required, the RN will tell you, You can not wear gloves for this skills. Just remove them.

Gloves are put on IF USED for that skill after hand washing. Make sure your hands are well dried. If you change gloves BETWEEN Skills.. you can tell the RN – VERBALLY – I would wash hands in-between gloves changes if needed. DO NOT DO IT. In real world practice, if needed you would wash hands between glove changes.

Potentially Infectious Materials include:

  • Blood and tears
  • Sputum or saliva
  • Vaginal secretions
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Urine and feces
  • Semen
  • Peritoneal fluid
  • Vomit
  • Pleural fluid
  • Pericardial fluid
  • Synovial fluid
  • Amniotic fluid
  • All bodily fluids if visibly contaminated with blood.

ppe - personal protective equipment

PPE stands for Personal Protective Equipment. PPE are some of the most important equipment that help protect us from accidents at the workplace. PPE allows us to limit damages and injuries which we could sustain by exposure to different dangerous and harmful liquids and chemicals which we handle.

Bloodborne pathogens are a serious risk to human health. They can be transmitted through blood and bloodborne contact. These pathogens can be dangerous if not handled/treated properly. We will discuss bloodborne pathogens, the symptoms of infections caused by these pathogens, how they are spread and how to prevent them.

Taking Universal Precautions

Universal precautions include vigorously washing hands before and after exposure to blood and other body fluids. Healthcare providers should also always wear gloves, masks, goggles, other personal protective equipment (PPE) and use work practice controls to limit exposure to potential bloodborne pathogens.

5 Steps of Universal Precautions

  • Education.
  • Hand washing.
  • Use of protective barriers (Personal Protective Equipment (PPE))
  • Cleaning of contaminated surfaces.
  • Safe handling/disposal of contaminated material

Standard Precautions

  • Use of personal protective equipment
  • Respiratory hygiene / cough etiquette. 
  • Sharps safety (engineering and work practice controls). 
  • Safe injection practices (i.e., aseptic technique for medications).
  • Sterile instruments and devices.
Bloodborne Pathogens

According to the American National Red Cross: “Bloodborne pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, are present in blood and body fluids and can cause disease in humans. The bloodborne pathogens of primary concern are hepatitis Bhepatitis C and HIV. These and other bloodborne pathogens are spread primarily through:

  • Direct contact. Infected blood or body fluid from one person enters another person’s body at a correct entry site, such as infected blood splashing in the eye.
  • Indirect contact. A person’s skin touches an object that contains the blood or body fluid of an infected person, such as picking up soiled dressings contaminated with an infected person’s blood or body fluid.
  • Respiratory droplet transmission. A person inhales droplets from an infected person, such as through a cough or sneeze.
  • Vector-borne transmission. A person’s skin is penetrated by an infectious source, such as an insect bite.